Microgrids in Active Network Management- Part I: Hierarchical Control, Energy Storage, Virtual Power Plants, and Market Participation

Abstract

The microgrid concept has been closely investigated and implemented by numerous experts worldwide. The first part of this paper describes the principles of microgrid design, considering the operational concepts and requirements arising from participation in active network management. Over the last several years, efforts to standardize microgrids have been made, and it is in terms of these advances that the current paper proposes the application of IEC/ISO 62264 standards to microgrids and Virtual Power Plants, along with a comprehensive review of microgrids, including advanced control techniques, energy storage systems, and market participation in both island and grid-connection operation. Finally, control techniques and the principles of energy-storage systems are summarized in a comprehensive flowchart.

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