Vertebrates (Total 27547 Papers Found)

To what degree is the divergent adaptation responsible for life's phenotypic variety also responsible for generating the millions of species that manifest this variation? Theory predicts that ecological divergence among populations should promote reproductive isolation, and recent empirical studies provide support for this hypothesis in a limited number of specific taxa. However, the essential question of whether ecology plays a truly general role in speciation has yet to be systematically evalu ...
In the present study, both lamprey GnRH-I and -III stimulated steroidogenesis and induced ovulation in adult female sea lampreys during their final reproductive stage. One injection of lamprey GnRH-III at 0.1 or 0.2 microg/g lamprey stimulated plasma estradiol levels in lampreys held at each of three water temperatures, 13 degrees , 17 degrees , and 19 degrees , corresponding to increasing stages of maturation. Four successive injections, 3 to 4 days apart, of lamprey GnRH-III at 0.1 or 0.2 micr ...
During development, neural networks are established in a highly organized manner, which persists throughout life. Neurotrophins play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Among the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly conserved in gene structure and function during vertebrate evolution, and serves an important role during brain development and in synaptic plasticity. BDNF participates in the formation of appropriate synaptic connections in the brain, and di ...
Most triploblastic animals including vertebrates have a coelomic cavity that separates the outer and inner components of the body. The coelom is lined by two different tissue components, somatopleure and splanchnopleure, which are derived from the lateral plate region. Thus, the coelom is constructed as a result of a binary decision during early specification of the lateral plate. In this report we studied the molecular mechanisms of this binary decision. We first demonstrate that the splitting ...
The B-lymphocyte-inducing maturation protein (Blimp-1) gene encodes a zinc finger and SET/PR domain-containing transcriptional factor. A number of functional studies in a variety of vertebrate species have demonstrated that Blimp-1 is a master regulator of cell fate determination and cell differentiation in a wide diversity of developmental contexts. Despite all of this significance, the role, if any, of a homologue of Blimp-1 in directing morphogenetic events during embryonic development of inv ...
Progestagenic sex steroid hormones play critical roles in reproduction across vertebrates, including teleost fish. To further our understanding of how progesterone modulates testis functions in fish, we set out to clone a progesterone receptor (pgr) cDNA exhibiting nuclear hormone receptor features from zebrafish testis. The open reading frame of pgr consists of 1854 bp, coding for a 617-amino acid-long protein showing the highest similarity with other piscine Pgr proteins. Functional characteri ...
We have isolated the embryonic lethal gene muscleblind (mbl) as a suppressor of the sev-svp2 eye phenotype. Analysis of clones mutant for mbl during eye development shows that it is autonomously required for photoreceptor differentiation. Mutant cells are recruited into developing ommatidia and initiate neural differentiation, but they fail to properly differentiate as photoreceptors. Molecular analysis reveals that the mbl locus is large and complex, giving rise to multiple different proteins w ...
Notch signaling is essential for embryonic vascular development in mammals and other vertebrates. Here we show that mouse embryos with conditional activation of the Notch1 gene in endothelial cells (Notch1 gain of function embryos) exhibit defects in vascular remodeling increased diameter of the dorsal aortae, and form arteriovenous malformations. Conversely, embryos with either constitutive or endothelial cell-specific Notch1 gene deletion also have vascular defects, but exhibit decreased diame ...
Notch signaling plays an important role in cell-fate specification in multicellular organisms by regulating cell-cell communication. The Drosophila deltex gene encodes a modulator of the Notch pathway that has been shown to interact physically with the Ankyrin repeats of Notch. We isolated four distinct cDNAs corresponding to mouse homologs of deltex - mouse Deltex1 (MDTX1), mouse Deltex2 (MDTX2), mouse Deltex2DeltaE (MDTX2DeltaE), and mouse Deltex3 (MDTX3). Deduced amino acid sequences of these ...
Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae (order Rickettsiales, α-Proteobacteria) are mainly known to be endosymbionts of arthropods with the capability to infect also vertebrate cells. Recently, they have also been found as leech endocytobionts. In the present paper, we report the first finding of a bacterium belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae in a natural population of a marine ciliate protozoan, namely Diophrys appendiculata, collected in the Baltic Sea. Bacteria were unambiguously identifie ...
In vitro formation of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes was studied. Gametocytes produced in vitro were obtained from heart and tail blood of Swiss mice and from blood removed from mosquitoes directly after feeding on these mice. In vitro produced gametocytes were obtained from short-term cultures of the erythrocytic stages of P. berghei. Reproducible ookinete production was obtained in medium RPMI 1640, pH 7.8-8.0, using in vivo and in vitro produced gametocytes. The morphology of developmental stag ...
Nucleic acid-induced gene silencing, such as RNA interference (RNAi), induces a multitude of responses in addition to the knockdown of a gene. This is best understood in the context of the antiviral immune response, from which the processes of RNAi are thought to be derived. Viral challenge of a vertebrate host leads to an intricate series of responses that orchestrate antiviral immunity. The success of this multifaceted system in overcoming viral encounters hinges on complex pathogen-host inter ...
Somites are repeated, epithelial structures that are derived from the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm located lateral to the notochord. In higher vertebrates, somites differentiate into a sclerotome that subsequently forms the vertebrae and the ribs and into a dermomyotome that gives rise to a myotome, from which arises the skeletal muscle, and to a dermatome, from which arises the dermis. Fish somites have been shown to produce a sclerotome and a myotome, but very little is known regarding their ...
Our prevailing view of vertebrate host defense is strongly shaped by the notion of a specialized set of immune cells as sole guardians of antimicrobial resistance. Yet this view greatly underestimates a capacity for most cell lineages-the majority of which fall outside the traditional province of the immune system-to defend themselves against infection. This ancient and ubiquitous form of host protection is termed cell-autonomous immunity and operates across all three domains of life. Here, we d ...
Structure of Fly RPTPs As with PTKs, PTPs come in two flavors, cytoplasmic Max-Planck-Institut fü r Entwicklungsbiologie Abteilung Physikalische Biologie and receptor-like, and share the greatest sequence similarity in their phosphatase domains. Cytoplasmic PTPs 72076 Tü bingen Federal Republic of Germany comprise a single phosphatase domain and one or more protein-binding domains, while RPTPs comprise a cyto-In the long-standing mystery of who steers the growth plasmic region containing one o ...
Most studies analyzing the effects of global warming on wild populations focus on gradual temperature changes, yet it is also important to understand the impact of extreme climatic events. Here we studied the effect of two cold spells (January 1985 and February 2012) on the energetics of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in the Camargue (southern France). To understand the cause of observed flamingo mass mortalities, we first assessed the energy stores of flamingos found dead in February ...
Virtually all vertebrates have a vomeronasal system whose involvement in pheromone detection plays a crucial role in reproduction. In humans, the vomeronasal organ has been assumed to be vestigial or absent and without functional significance. In the present study involving over 400 subjects, vomeronasal pits were observed in all individuals except those with pathological conditions affecting the septum. Electron microscopy of the adult human vomeronasal organ indicates the presence of two poten ...
Bats host a large number of zoonotic viruses, including several viruses that are highly pathogenic to other mammals. The mechanisms underlying this rich viral diversity are unknown, but they may be linked to unique immunological features that allow bats to act as asymptomatic viral reservoirs. Vertebrates respond to viral infection by inducing IFNs, which trigger antiviral defenses through IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. Although the IFN system of several bats is characterized at the genom ...
Microtus fortis is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum by preventing completion of parasite's life cycle. Sera of M. fortis were found to have anti-schistosome effect in vitro and in vivo. In order to identify genes associated with the anti-schistosome effect of M. fortis, we screened a M. fortis marrow cDNA expression library by expression cloning and identified a 331-bp clone gC14.75. It was the homologue of heat shock protein 90alpha (HSP90alpha). Full-length of M. ...
With their striking predilection for perching on African ungulates and eating their ticks, yellow-billed (Buphagus africanus) and red-billed oxpeckers (B. erythrorhynchus) represent one of the few potentially mutualistic relationships among vertebrates. The nature of the oxpecker-ungulate relationship remains uncertain, however, because oxpeckers are known to consume ungulate tissues, suggesting that the relationship between oxpeckers and ungulates may also be parasitic. To examine this issue fu ...
The complement system in vertebrates plays a crucial role in immune defense via recognition and removal of pathogens. Complement is tightly regulated by a group of both soluble and cell-associated proteins. Complement factor I is a soluble serine protease that regulates multiple pathways in complement activation. In this work, a complement factor I transcript was isolated and sequenced from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) liver after screening expressed sequence tags. The full-length cDNA ...
We report fossil traces of Osedax, a genus of siboglinid annelids that consume the skeletons of sunken vertebrates on the ocean floor, from early-Late Cretaceous (approx. 100 Myr) plesiosaur and sea turtle bones. Although plesiosaurs went extinct at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (66 Myr), chelonioids survived the event and diversified, and thus provided sustenance for Osedax in the 20 Myr gap preceding the radiation of cetaceans, their main modern food source. This finding shows that marine ...
S e v e r a l years ago our laboratory initiated a study designed to demonstrate the existence of naturally occurring viruses in marine fishes. The experimental approach to this problem included the utilization of tissue cultures of marine fish cells as host systems for attempted virus isolations. In the course of this work, Clem et al. (1) established an in vitro cell line, designated GF, from fin tissue of the blue striped grunt (Haemulon sciurus). In one bottle culture at the 65th passage lev ...
  • Tracy J Smith,
  • BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1990
Amine acetylation is a diverse topic with importance to the regulation of several physiological processes as well as the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase is widely distributed in several species, where this enzyme plays an important role in the seasonal regulation of reproduction and photoperiodism in vertebrates through the pathway of melatonin formation. In insects, this enzyme is involved in monoamine neurotransmitter inactivation and the for ...
The rd1 mouse retina is a well-studied model of retinal degeneration where rod photoreceptors undergo cell death beginning at postnatal day (P) 10 until P21. This period coincides with photoreceptor terminal differentiation in a normal retina. We have used the rd1 retina as a model to investigate early molecular defects in developing rod photoreceptors prior to the onset of degeneration. Using a microarray approach, we performed gene profiling comparing rd1 and wild type (wt) retinas at four tim ...
Colonial burrowing herbivores can modify vegetation structure, create belowground refugia, and generate landscape heterogeneity, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of associated species. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are such a species, and they may strongly affect the abundance and composition of grassland bird communities. We examined how prairie dog colonies in the North American Great Plains affect bird species and community composition. Areas occupied by pra ...
Haematophagous female blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of vertebrate pathogens, namely filarial Dirofilaria, Mansonella, Onchocerca and protozoal Leucocytozoon. Immature stages of Simuliidae inhabit lotic waterways, the sessile larvae filter-feeding and often forming a large proportion of the benthic biomass, usually aggregated in well-oxygenated sections of streams, rivers, waterfalls and spillways. Simuliid control practices depend on larvicidal ch ...
Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that affect wildlife, livestock and, occasionally, humans. Culicoides imicola (Kieffer, 1913) is considered to be the main vector of the pathogens that cause bluetongue disease (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in southern Europe. The study of blood-feeding patterns in Culicoides is an essential step towards understanding the epidemiology of these pathogens. Molecular tools that increase the accuracy and sensitivity of traditiona ...
Prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of ion and water transport within osmoregulatory tissues across vertebrate species, yet how PRL acts on some of its target tissues remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish as a model, we show that ionocytes in the gill directly respond to systemic PRL to regulate mechanisms of ion uptake. Ion-poor conditions led to increases in the expression of PRL receptor (prlra), Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (ncc; slc12a10.2), Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (nhe3b; slc9a3.2), a ...
In order to analyse target genes regulated by retinoic acid in urodele limb regeneration, we have used pseudotyped retroviruses to obtain stably transfected newt limb blastemal (progenitor) cells in culture which express chimeric retinoic acid/thyroid hormone receptors delta1 or delta2. After treatment with thyroid hormone to activate the chimeric receptors, we used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based subtraction method to identify target genes which are retinoid regulated. Newt connective t ...
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in New York City in 1999 and rapidly moved westward. Understanding the mechanisms by which the amplification cycle is reinitiated each year increases our ability to predict epizootics and geographic expansion of the disease. Such understanding is enhanced by knowledge of the patterns of infection in the vertebrate reservoir hosts. Blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) may serve as reservoir hosts for WNV. We examined the influence of age and da ...
Cone photopigments (opsins) are crucial elements of, and the first detection module in, color vision. Individual opsins have different wavelength sensitivity patterns, and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of opsins are unique and stringently regulated. Long and middle wavelength-sensitive (L/M) opsins are of the same phylogenetic type. Although the roles of thyroid hormone/TRß2 and COUP-TFs in the transcriptional regulation of L/M opsins have been explored, the detailed mechanisms, ...
Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genetic remnants of exogenous retroviral infections that have endured selective processes and made their way into ancestral host genomes. While many of them have deteriorated beyond the ability to code for detectable proteins, some still retain activity or the potential for coding activity [1-3]. A few active ERVs have been coopted into fully functional genes that play important roles in development or disease [1, 2, 4]. New high throughput data reve ...
Distributions and densities of orb spiders on small islands are extremely variable. Species occurrences are far more irregular for spiders than vertebrates on the same islands. Much variation in spider density is explainable by distance from the presumed source of colonists and presence or absence of vertebrate predators. As has been predicted for passive dispersers, densities decline exponentially with distance. For a given distance, spider densities are about ten times greater on islands witho ...
Journal of Lipid Research Volume 53, 2012 1535 Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. They facilitate lipid absorption, inhibit microbe growth in the biliary tract and intestine, and function as signaling molecules that regulate energy expenditure and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism ( 2 ). The bile salt pool is maintained in an enterohepatic circulation by bile salt transporters in the distal ileum and the liver ( 3 ). Central to this process is ...
An important characteristic of the innate immune systems of crayfish and other arthropods is the activation of a serine proteinase cascade in the hemolymph, which results in the activation of prophenoloxidase and subsequently leading to the formation of toxic quinones and melanin. Although no true complement homologues have been detected in crayfish or crustaceans, several proteins with similarities to vertebrate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are involved in the lectin pathway of c ...
Ongoing fieldwork and molecular research continues to reveal that the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia contain more vertebrate species than currently recognised. Here we focus on two morphologically distinctive, yet unrecognised forms in the genus Gehyra from the southern Kimberley region and surrounding deserts. We base our descriptions on a combination of unpublished genetic data and a morphological examination of voucher specimens. We recognise and redescribe G. kimberleyi, a species w ...
Ascidians, belonging to the subphylum Urochordata, the earliest branch from the lineage to the vertebrates, exhibit a prototypical morphogenesis of chordates in the larval development, although they subsequently metamorphose into adults with a unique body structure. Recent draft genome analysis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis has identified 9 Hox genes, which, however, have been located on five scaffolds. Similarly, expression patterns of Ciona Hox genes are largely unknown, although some dat ...
The Zic genes are the vertebrate homologues of the Drosophila Odd-paired gene. Mutations in two of these genes are associated with human congenital genetic disorders. Mutation of human and mouse Zic2 is associated with holoprosencephaly which is caused by a defect of ventral forebrain development and mutation of human and mouse Zic3 is associated with a X-linked heterotaxy syndrome that results from a failure of left-right axis formation. The embryological role of the Zic genes in these disorder ...
The effects of exogenous administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues or of a partly purified salmon gonadotropin extract (GTH) on the duration of steroid and thyroid hormone levels were determined in female and male sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, tested under differing temperature and reproductive status. Plasma estradiol levels, but not androgens, were significantly elevated in response to the GnRH analogues or GTH injection compared to controls in female and male lampr ...
Roughly 40 years after its introduction, the metapopulation concept is central to population ecology. The notion that local populations and their dynamics may be coupled by dispersal is without any doubt of great importance for our understanding of population-level processes. A metapopulation describes a set of subpopulations linked by (rare) dispersal events in a dynamic equilibrium of extinctions and recolonizations. In the large body of literature that has accumulated, the term "metapopulatio ...
The vertebrate main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB and AOB) are the first synaptic sites in the olfactory pathways. The MOB is a cortical structure phylogenetically well conserved in its laminar structure and overall synaptic organization, while the AOB has significant species variation in size. In order to better understand signal processing in the two olfactory systems and the species differences, immunocytochemical staining and analysis were done of the neuronal expression patterns of the ...
The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell ...
In many organisms, programmed cell death of germ cells is required for normal development. This often occurs through highly conserved events including the transfer of vital cellular material to the growing gametes following death of neighboring cells. Germline cell death also plays a role in such diverse processes as removal of abnormal or superfluous cells at certain checkpoints, establishment of caste differentiation, and individualization of gametes. This review focuses on the cell death even ...
Metallothioneins are small, high-Cys-containing proteins present in a wide variety of organisms including vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, cyanobacteria, and higher plants (Hamer, 1986). Metallothioneins play a role in heavy metal detoxification, especially in respect to cadmium, copper, and zinc (Hamer, 1986). Gene disruptions of the bakers’ yeast Cupl locus that encodes a metallothionein and the mouse metallothionein I and I1 genes result in hypersensitivity to copper and cadmium (Hamer et ...
RNA editing by deamination of specific adenosine bases to inosines during pre-mRNA processing generates edited isoforms of proteins. Recoding RNA editing is more widespread in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Editing levels rise strongly at metamorphosis, and Adar(5G1) null mutant flies lack editing events in hundreds of CNS transcripts; mutant flies have reduced viability, severely defective locomotion and age-dependent neurodegeneration. On the other hand, overexpressing an adult dADAR isoform ...
Six experiments were carried out to define the optimum conditions for investigating the dynamics of uptake and metabolism of tritiated E2 from water by adult blue mussels, Mytilus spp. Optimum uptake was achieved using 400mL aerated sea water animal-1 and an incubation period of no more than 24h. The pattern of disappearance conformed closest to an inverse hyperbolic curve with the percentage of radiolabel that could be measured in the water reaching an asymptote that was on average 50% of the o ...