anatomical layer (Total 246086 Papers Found)

A new model of transient, bilateral hemispheric ischemia in the unanesthetized rat is described. During ether anesthesia the rat's vertebral arteries were electrocauterized through the alar foramina of the first cervical vertebra and reversible clasps placed loosely around the common carotid arteries. Twenty-four hr later, the awake rats were restrained and the carotid clasps tightened to produce 4-vessel occlusion. The carotid clasps were removed after 10, 20 or 30 min of 4-vessel occlusion and ...
The stratified water column of the Black Sea produces a vertical succession of redox zones, stimulating microbial activity at the interfaces. Our study of intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) in suspended particulate matter and sediments highlights their potential as biomarkers for assessing the taxonomic composition of live microbial biomass. Intact polar membrane lipids in oxic waters above the chemocline represent contributions of bacterial and eukaryotic photosynthetic algae, while anoxygenic ...
In this work, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is explored in multi-layered geometries. A quantitative comparison of an homogeneous versus a two-layered model efficiencies to recover flow changes is presented. By simulating a realistic human head with MRI anatomical data, we show that the two-layered model allows distinction between changes in superficial layers and brain. We also show that the two-layered model provides a better estimate of the flow change than the homogeneous one. Experi ...
The distribution and density of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding sites have been investigated in the brain of the primates Jacchus callithrix (marmoset) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque) using [(125)I]-PACAP27 as a radioligand. PACAP binding sites were widely expressed in the brain of these two species with particularly high densities in the septum, hypothalamus and habenula. A moderate density of recognition sites was seen in all subdivisions of the cerebral co ...
Performance parameters of BAW devices are reviewed and ranked corresponding to their importance for RF-filters in mobile phone applications. The most important performance parameters - such as resonator bandwidth and Q-values - critically depend on the quality of the piezolayer and other relevant layers in the acoustic stack. The design of the complete layer stack in a Solidly Mounted Resonator (SMR) concept in combination with a proper design of lateral resonator-boundaries will be revealed to ...
PURPOSE In a prior study the cellular uptake of folate was investigated in the retina. Recently, a new proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) in human intestine was reported. In the present study, the expression of this novel transporter in the retina was determined, the mouse orthologue was cloned from retinal tissue, and its transport function was characterized. METHODS RT-PCR and folate uptake measurements were used to detect the expression of PCFT in mouse retina and in retinal cell type ...
Retinitis pigmentosa belongs to a large group of degenerative diseases of the retina with a hereditary background. It involves loss of retinal photoreceptor cells and consequently peripheral vision. At present there are no satisfactory therapeutic options for this disease. Just recently the use of mesenchymal stem cells has been discussed as one therapeutical option for retinal degeneration, as they have been shown to differentiate into various cell types, including photoreceptor cells. In this ...
INTRODUCTION EVELYNE MICOLLIER Plural discourses on sex, components and methods of workings of sexual cultures in Asia need to be explored in more depth, and this book should be taken as one brick added to the edifice of this specific body of knowledge. The main focus of our book is the study of sexual cultures and commercial sex work in East Asian societies. Most chapters have been revised from papers presented at the IIAS Conference 'Health, Sexuality, and Civil Society in East Asia', which to ...
Green leafy vegetables are the most underexploited class of vegetables despite high nutritional value. Reports on nutritional composition and storage of some of the fresh leaves are available but the storage behavior of dehydrated leaves apparently has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, two green leafy vegetables, savoy beets (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) were dehydrated in a low temperature drier and stored for 9 months under ambient ...
Microfluidic devices integrating membrane-based sample preparation with electrophoretic separation are demonstrated. These multilayer devices consist of 10 nm pore diameter membranes sandwiched between two layers of PDMS substrates with embedded microchannels. Because of the membrane isolation, material exchange between two fluidic layers can be precisely controlled by applied voltages. More importantly, since only small molecules can pass through the nanopores, the integrated membrane can serve ...
This study presents a multicellular computational model of a rat mesenteric arteriole to investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved in the generation of conducted vasoreactivity. The model comprises detailed descriptions of endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells (SMCs), coupled by nonselective gap junctions. With strong myoendothelial coupling, local agonist stimulation of the EC or SM layer causes local changes in membrane potential (V(m)) that are conducted electrotonicall ...
To isolate the neural mechanisms associated with recognizing objects from those processing basic visual properties, control stimuli are required that contain the same perceptual properties as the objects but are unrecognizable. We demonstrate that conventional methods for generating control stimuli (phase scrambling, box scrambling, texture scrambling) yield poor controls because they dramatically distort the basic visual properties (e.g., spatial frequency, perceptual organization) to which eve ...
The effects of a variety of developmental manipulations on the distribution of the callosal pathway to visual cortex were examined by using the Fink Heimer technique in adult rats. First, the callosal projections in albino and pigmented rats were compared and found to be similar. The callosal pathway was limited in area 17 to a region adjoining its lateral border with area 18a. Second, dark-reared rats were found to have normal callosal projections. Third, rats bilaterally enucleated at birth an ...
Meloidogyne incognita eggs or J2 were incubated in test tubes containing sand:peat mix and immersed in a water bath heated to 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45 degrees C for a series of time intervals. Controls were maintained at 22 degrees C. Nematodes surviving or hatching were collected from Baermann trays after three weeks of incubation. Regression analyses between percent survival or egg hatch and hours of heat treatment were performed for each temperature. Complete suppression of egg hatch ...
Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin has a defective barrier function as indicated by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In order to test potential new formulations for AD, it was our aim to develop a skin permeation model simulating AD skin by inducing barrier impairment to otherwise healthy skin simulating the barrier properties of AD skin as evaluated by TEWL measurements. Pig ear skin was mounted to Franz-type diffusion cells. Skin barrier impairment was induced by tape strippings. As the nu ...
Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval form of Taenia hydatigena, was observed in a 5-year-old male cynomolgus monkey used in a toxicity study for a safety assessment of a pharmaceutical. The animal was born and raised in a primate colony in China. A pale yellow cyst filled with more than 100ml of pale yellow fluid was found in the abdominal cavity in the autopsy. The cyst was found attached to the greater omentum, and it was double layered. Histopathologically, the outer layer was a part of the gr ...
A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia isolates obtained from different layer flocks in Belgium and The Netherlands between 2008 and 2010. The antimicrobial agents used were tylosin, tilmicosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, and lincomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution patterns of tylosin, tilmicosin, lincomycin, and doxycycline were bimodal, demonstrating acquired resistance against doxycyc ...
Online monitoring of the contamination condition of power transmission line is important to prevent insulation from flashover. The conventional online monitoring methods are easily disturbed by the strong electromagnetic interference around the high voltage line. In this letter, Bragg wavelength of polyimide coated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is found to be slightly restrained by the salt deposited on the polyimide surface. Based on the effect, a special designed FBG sensor is proposed for detecti ...
The excretory organs of Sphaerodorum flavum (Sphaerodoridae) were investigated by TEM and reconstructed from serial ultrathin sections. These organs are segmentally arranged paired protonephridia, which are in close association with a well-developed blood vascular system. Each protonephridium consists of a terminal part made up of two monociliary terminal cells (solenocytes), and a nephridioduct, formed by two cells. The two solenocytes lie close together. Each cilium is surrounded by 12 microvi ...
The long history of neuroscience has accumulated information about numerous types of neurons in the brain of various organisms. Because such neurons have been reported in diverse publications without controlled format, it is not easy to keep track of all the known neurons in a particular nervous system. To address this issue we constructed an online database called Flybrain Neuron Database (Flybrain NDB), which serves as a platform to collect and provide information about all the types of neuron ...
Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. Static barriers (different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood–retinal barriers), dynamic barriers (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution), and efflux pumps in conjunction pose a significant challenge for delivery of a drug alone or in a dosage form, especially to the posterior segmen ...
X-RAY diffraction patterns have been obtained from the light receptor membranes of frog retinal rod outer segments (of Rana temporaria and pipiens)1,2 and a one dimensional electron density profile across the membrane has been derived1. Until now the closest approach to studying the membranes in physiological conditions has been to pass X-rays through the outer segment layer of a strip of retina dissected from an eye and placed in a chilled glucose-supplemented Ringer solution1. To obtain a high ...
Sunspots are the subject of interest to many astronomers and solar physicists. Sunspot observation, analysis and classification form an important part of furthering the knowledge about the Sun. Sunspot classification is a manual and thus very labor intensive process that could be automated if it can be successfully learned by a machine. This paper deals with data mining approaches to the problem of sunspot classification. The classification scheme attempted was the seven-class Modified Zurich sc ...
The correlation between skin structure and hydrodynamic design of the dorsal fin of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) was examined. For the study of fin morphology and geometry, a scheme of sampling representing a two-parameter mesh on the fin surface was used. At each data point the thickness of the epidermis, papillary and subpapillary layers of the dermis, the ligamentous layer of the fin, as well as the angle formed by the direction of dermal ridges and the fin root chord were measured ...
Single layers of WS2 nanoplates are uniformly embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (WS2@NCNFs) via a facile electrospinning method. Crystallization of the single-layered WS2 nanoplates and in situ nitrogen doping into the carbon nanofibers were simultaneously accomplished during a two-step heat treatment. The distinctive structure of the WS2@NCNFs enables outstanding electrochemical performances. ...
We consider a cross-layer design of wireless ad-hoc networks. Traditional networking approaches optimize separately each of the three layers: physical layer, medium access and routing. This may lead to largely suboptimal network designs. In this work, we propose a jointly optimal design of the three layers, and we show a significant performance improvement over the conventional approach. In the first part of this thesis, our goal is to select appropriate performance metrics for the joint optimiz ...
Ego-network, which represents relationships between a specific individual, i.e., the ego, and people connected to it, i.e., alters, is a critical target to study in social network analysis. Evolutionary patterns of ego-networks along time provide huge insights to many domains such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. However, the analysis of dynamic ego-networks remains challenging due to its complicated time-varying graph structures, for example: alters come and leave, ties grow stronger ...
The cortical microvessels are organized in an intricate, hierarchical, three-dimensional network. Superimposed on this anatomical complexity is the highly complicated signaling that drives the focal blood flow adjustments following a rise in the activity of surrounding neurons. The microvascular response to neuronal activation remains incompletely understood. We developed a custom two photon fluorescence microscopy acquisition and analysis to obtain 3D maps of neuronal activation-induced changes ...
The aim of this document is to define an integrated model for adaptive learning, based on existing specifications. Such a model should help to achieve a common understanding of relevant concepts in personalized adaptive e-learning and to clarify their relationships with current learning technology standards. Keyword list: adaptive learning, personalization, learning standards Disclaimer: All information included in this document is subject to change without notice. The Members of the GRAPPLE Con ...
In Shadow-Fading model, it's difficult to get Quality of service (QoS) because of the massive scaling fading like node mobility, a scarcity of centralized co-ordination, fading radio signals, distributed channel access, and also the unreliable nature of the wireless channel. To achieve this objective a protocol QoS-aware routing (QAR) and an admission control (AC) has been projected that has QoS guarantees within the face of the higher than mentioned difficulties long-faced. Providing QoS in MAN ...
The interrelationships between sodium ion, calcium transport and oxygen utilization have been investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. The oxygen uptakes of the two surface layers of the tissue, the ectoderm and the endoderm, were separated into their basal, Na+ dependent and Ca++ dependent components. The endoderm has a basal rate of respiration of 3.6 μliters O2/cm2/hr and a Na+ dependent component of 1.4 μliters O2/cm2/hr. The ectoderm has a basal rate of respiration of about 3.5 ...
A new low-cost flip-chip technology that leverages the existing fine pitch flip-chip technologies is discussed. For decades, the C4 process has served as the main interconnect method in the flip-chip package. However with bump pitches shrinking, the solder bump based C4 process is facing challenges in terms of reducing pitch and underfill process. At the same time, increasing challenges for flip-chip are seen by the movement toward lead-free solder bumps and low-k dielectric layers. This paper p ...
A two-dimensional Heisenberg model with random antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange is studied using quantum Monte Carlo techniques. As the strength of the randomness is increased, the system undergoes a transition from an antiferromagnetically ordered ground state to a gapless disordered state. The finite-size scaling of the staggered structure factor and susceptibility is consistent with a dynamic exponent z = 2. PACS numbers: 75.10.Nr, 75.10.Jm, 75.40.Cx, 75.40.Mg Typeset using REVTEX ...
The aim of this work is to examine the possibility of CuNi protection in chloride media by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of stearic acid (SA). In order to obtain a compact, well ordered monolayer, that will provide long term protection, different SAM preparation procedures are studied. The influence of CuNi pretreatment, SA solution temperature and temperature of the drying period followed after the SA treatment on the protective properties of stearic acid self-assembled layer are examined by ...
The organization of autonomic nerve structures in the large intestine of chinchilla was investigated using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The myenteric plexus formed network nodes of cholinergic neurocyte agglomerations connected with bundles of nerve fibres and localized between the circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. The highest density of myenteric plexus was observed in the rectum. The different densities of myenteric plexus in subsequent parts of the large ...
OBJECTIVE Molar-incisor malformation (MIM) is a newly discovered type of dental anomaly that involves a characteristic root malformation of the permanent first molars. The aim of this study was to reveal the microstructure of MIM teeth in order to determine their origin. STUDY DESIGN Four MIM teeth were extracted from a 9-year-old girl due to severe mobility. The detailed microstructure of the teeth was determined by examinations with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin ...
Supporting-electrolyte solutions comprise chemically inert cations and anions, produced by salt dissolution, together with a reactive ionic species that may be consumed and generated on bounding ion-selective surfaces (e.g., electrodes or membranes). Upon application of an external voltage, a Faraday current is thereby established. It is natural to analyze this ternary-system process through a one-dimensional transport problem, employing the thin Debye-layer limit. Using a simple model of ideal ...
Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal ...
The aim of the present study was to describe the deep muscular plexus of the pig duodenum and to characterize its cellular components. Numerous nerve varicosities have been detected in the deep muscular plexus using anti-synaptophysin antibodies. Nerve fibres were also detected here in the outer circular muscle layer, whereas no nerve fibres were observed in the inner circular muscle layer. In the deep muscular plexus, nerve fibres projected to interstitial cells which were characterized at the ...
We present theoretical studies based on first-principles density functional theory calculations on the mechanisms of chemical vapor deposition of Cu-hexafluoracetylacetonato-trimethylvinylsilane (Cu(hfac)(tmvs)) on tantalum surfaces. This process has been used in the past to grow copper films via a disproportionation reaction and was found to exhibit adhesion problems. We show that the Ta surfaces are highly reactive and that the organic ligands in a copper precursor would undergo spontaneous de ...
An artificial neural network is used to predict both the classification of aroma compounds and their flavor impression threshold values for a series of pyrazines. The classification set consists of 98 compounds (32 green, 43 bell-pepper, and 23 nutty smelling pyrazines), and the regression sets consist of 24 green and 37 bell-pepper odorous pyrazines. The best classification of the three aroma impressions (93.7%) is obtained by using a multilayer perceptron network architecture. To predict the t ...
Information Technology (IT) infrastructure integration and knowledge management share communal objectives e.g. to make organisations more effective and efficient, agile and innovative, and more responsive to market changes. Such association when assimilates bona fide knowledge management philosophy, it offers the IT departments a headship opportunity for organisational transformation in affiliation with the rest of the establishment. Notwithstanding, in the context of Local Government Authoritie ...
A class of rate-compatible (RC) quasi-cycle low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes that have linear encodable complexity and low error floor is presented. To ensure linear encoding complexity, a lower triangular (LT) form for the parity part of the mother parity-check matrix is designed. By the designed LT form, a recursive encoding strategy is proposed. This encoding strategy can achieve linear encodable complexity, which is completely proportional to the code length. To guarantee good perfor ...
Research efforts in organized assemblies of nanosized particle materials have been intensified lately, in part, due to their application potentialities as the building blocks for electronic nanodevices/nanocircuits.1-9 Among these, monolayer-protected nanoclusters (MPCs)10 have attracted particular attention thanks to the (sub)attofarad molecular-capacitor characteristics. Under ambient conditions, solutions and surface ensembles of monodisperse MPCs exhibit quantized charging to their double la ...
Dc-electric field screening in the Si-SiO2 multiple quantum wells is studied by optical second harmonic generation. Experimentally observed oscillations in the nonlinear response, inconsistent with semiclassical description of screening, are explained within the Tomas-Fermi approach. The significant attention has been given recently to the study of the influence of the external electric field on the nonlinear-optical properties of the solids. In particular, the electric field effects in low-dime ...
The thermal performances of nanocomposite layers formed by Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) dispersed in 2 different kind of polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMSO) matrices has been investigated by measuring the thermal resistance under conditions similar to the ones used for thermal management in microelectronics. A series of nanocomposite samples with thickness in the range 25 microm(-1) cm have been tested. The nanocomposites were prepared varying the amounts of nanotubes embedded in the matrix ...
After the injury of the thalamus right hemisphere in tadpoles and young frogs X. laevis, 3H-thymidine incorporated in the cells of the thalamus ventricular zone, but not in the middle and large neurons of the type of neurons of the trigeminal nerve mesencephalic nucleus and the large ganglion cells of VI and VIII layers of the thalamus cortex. The brain trauma in tadpoles resulted in the activation of cell proliferation in the ventricular zone, whereas in young frogs the proliferation of glyocyt ...
In this work, the established technique for microfluidic synthesis of nanoscale liposomes of tunable size has been exploited for preclinical studies investigating the ability of small liposomes to passively cross through dermal layers for transdermal drug delivery. Topical application of therapeutics provides an avenue for painless, noninvasive delivery of molecules aimed at a range of clinical conditions. Unlike traditional methods, which yield polydisperse liposomes too large to traverse derma ...
This work reports results of a theoretical study of nonlinear optical processes in metal-dielectric nanocomposites used for the increase of the nonlinear coefficients and for plasmonic field enhancement. The main results include the study of the transient saturable nonlinearity in dielectric composites doped with metal nanoparticles, its physical mechanism as well its applications in nonlinear optics. For the study of the transient response, a time-depending equation for the dielectric function ...
The half-spin Kagomé antiferromagnet is one of the most promising candidates for the realization of a quantum spin liquid state because of its inherent frustration and quantum fluctuations. The search for candidates for quantum spin liquids with novel spin topologies is still a challenge. Herein, we report a new diluted Kagomé lattice in Cu7(TeO3)2(SO4)2(OH)6, showing a 9/16-depleted triangle lattice, where the corner-sharing triangle units [Cu5(OH)6O8] are separated by CuO2(OH)2. Magnetic mea ...